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For example, octylphenol polyethylene ethylene oxide units combined with hydroxylamines at a pH of 9. Typically, between about 0. This is counter-intuitive because closer to a pH of 5 or 6, the copper oxides copper I and copper II get harder and thus presumably more protective. The process of claim 1 wherein the secondary oxidizer comprises hydrogen peroxide, a perborate, a peroxhydrate, or a urea hydrogen peroxide complex. While the data showed considerable variation, lower concentrations of oxidizer relative to the abrasive reduced the polishing rates.

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NaOCl was found to be marginally effective. As the reacted surface layer is removed by abrasion, the underlying metal surface is exposed to chemical attack and the removal cycle continues.

A copper single-step slurry process involves only one phase slurry. Lithium periodate in water added to Ammonium persulfate increases the removal rate of W over Ammonium persulfate alone. In metal polishing, the exposed metal surface reacts with the slurry chemistry to form an oxide or other volatile surface a-0205s that is easier to remove by abrasion than the metal.

That is, 2,4-pentandione dioxime and BTA both form insoluble products at approximately the same rate and at apparently about the same degree of insolubility.

The polishing rate varied from about at pHto at pH 7.

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A well designed slurry comprises particles that neither flocculate or settle but rather maintain their suspension. The process of claim 25 wherein the chemical mechanical polishing composition comprises at least one of potassium iodate, potassium periodate, or lithium periodate. Under normal logutech conditions, the head holding the sample and platen lgoitech opposing surface onto which a polishing pad is mounted rotate in an opposite sense to one another.


The secondary oxidizer comprises potassium peroxymonosulfate, imidazole, malonic acid, or malonamide, and wherein the second material is a dielectric material.

At 14 days, however, the pH was 6. Normally, so long as an oxidizer is supplied to the dissolved film such that there is more of a chemical effect rather than a polishing effect, copper at a very low pH values is easily dissolved.

However, a primary problem with integrating copper metal into multilevel metallization systems is the difficulty of patterning the metal for devices of submicron minimum feature size after blanketing an interdielectric layer for revealing the filled channels and vias.

This same formulation was tested after 71 days, and the pH was 4. At pH 8, however, the polishing rate was Angstroms per minute.

The pH was held at 4. The concentration of malonic acid is beneficially between about 0. The copper dishing and oxide erosion can be controlled the same as those using two-phase slurry. The removal rate increased with increasing pH due to the oxidation potential. The head pressure down force may be between about 0. This was still a-0205 problem when I tried it about a month ago on hardy.


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While the data showed considerable variation, lower concentrations of oxidizer relative to the abrasive reduced the polishing rates. TaN selectivity of approximately A method for chemical mechanical polishing of aluminum comprising: The process of claim 17 further comprising a second polishing operation comprising the steps of:.

This layer can be removed only by polishing under extreme chemical conditions that include the use of strong acids or bases. Aug 15, Inventors: The chemical mechanical polishing composition may include at least one of potassium iodate, periodic acid, peracetic acid, potassium periodate, NH4HF2, or lithium periodate. Thus, 2,4-pentandione dioxime complexes copper without stack crystallizing further pentandione dioxime layers on the initial monolayer of 2,4-pentandione dioxime.

A method for chemical mechanical polishing of copper comprising: Polishing was done with a Logitech 5M polisher with a Politex felt cloth at 33 rpm and 2 psi pressure on the 3 inch wafer. Increasing the pH to 8 resulted in a polishing rate of Angstroms per minute.

The process of claim 33 further comprising a second polishing operation comprising the steps of:. Adding an additional 0.

After 7 days, the pH was 7.